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Mungo Run – Day 3/4/5 – The Lunette.Β 

I’ve saved the best of Mungo ’till last.

Mungo Landscape.

The iconic, the famous views that Mungo is known for. The Mungo landscape continues to be moulded by wind and rain. From the ancient dry lake basins of Mungo, Leaghur and Garnpang, lunettes on the eastern shores and dunefields to the west. According to the NP materials, the lake bed soils are a mosaic of grey and red heavy clays.

The Lunette

The Mungo lunette (the Walls of China) is made up mostly of loosely cemented whitish sands and well consolidated clays, with considerable gully erosion. The Leaghur and Garnpang lunettes have only suffered minor erosion and have abundant vegetative cover.

It’s strictly forbidden to climb on the lunette features or disturb artifacts. To access the Lunette you need to go on a guided tour.


After missing the sunset on our first afternoon, we staked out a what we thought would be a good sunset position when did the “Loop” on our second day – Red Top Tank Lookout. We arrived just as the sun started to hit the peaks of the formations.

The lunettes are major landforms of great importance to the ancient heritage of the area.
Didn’t quite hit the sunburst just right, so i ended up with some lens flare.
As the sun dipped and the light went off the formations, the pastels behind the Lunette began to light up.

Out on the Lunette

The following morning we headed down to the visitor centre ready to join our National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) Aboriginal Discovery Tour with one of the park rangers.

Well we scored big time with our guide. Ivan is an amazing guide and fellow. His tribe is the Paakantji tribe, from around Balranald. He is a school teacher by trade if you like, and discovery ranger by choice. He also sits on the World heritage committee that looks after the Willandra Lakes World Heritage area, and was heavily involved in getting “Mungo Man” returned to country, including being part of the party that escorted him back to Mungo.

Ivan Johnstone a Paakantji MNP Ranger
Our first step out on the Lunette, well technically our second, as when we were here in 2009 you were still able to freely walk over the Lunette.


Over thousands of years, wind and water have carved the lunette into spectacular formations comprised of sand and clay. Rain washes away the soft sands and muds, creating the rilled ridges and residuals that characterise the Walls of China. The dislodged sand is then picked up by the wind and heaped into huge mobile dunes along the back of the lunette.


There are four major layers of sediment form the Mungo lunette, and each represents a different period of time and different environmental condition. The layers have been named after the local pastoral stations Golgol, Mungo, Arumpo and Zanci, and were deposited in that order.

As you move about on the Lunette the landscape continually changes, from flat down low, to formations in the middle and sweeping sand dunes at the top.
Depending on the light the colours also change, or become more defined.
Some of the formations are small, others like this one tower over you.
The White Walls wrap themselves right around the lake, seen here up on the right hand side.
The upper three layers contain a vast amount of evidence of human occupation including hearths, middens, stone tools and burials; as well as megafaunal remains. Ivan is showing us some of the bones and tools that have been unearthed on the Lunette.
Almost at the top.
An unexpected delight when we reached the top, dunes, dunes and more dunes!
Looking towards Vigors Well, where we climbed the sand dune the day before.
One could say it was a little windy when we got to the top!
Footprints lead down into the gully
How amazing are these! about 8ft tall as we walked between the, down the gully
All of this from wind, water, sand and clay. Nature is amazing.
Looking back to the gully.


Those colours and patterns.

After the morning walk out on the Lunette with Ivan the temperature continued to rise, searing the air around us, so we opted to kick back and relax at the van in the shade, cause no-one needed to be out in that heat! On the way back to camp we ducked over to Mungo Lodge, a privately run lodge to see if they were running any sunset trips and luckily enough they were. We booked ourselves onto the tour and headed back to camp for the day avoiding the 46 degree heat (urgh).

Sunset on the Lunette

7pm finally ticked around and it was time to head back to the lodge to join the evening sunset walk on the Lunette. The clouds had even hung around and i had everything crossed they continued to hang around.

The colours as sunset descended on the lunette were just gorgeous and the clouds were playing along perfectly.
The difference in light from the bright, intense searing morning heat to the slightly chilled, cloudy sunset was immediately obvious. The different layers were clearly able to be seen.
As the winds blow, and the water washes across the lunette more bones and artifacts are uncovered. Some of the date as old as 22,0000 yrs.
Calcified trees are found across the lunette, and give some idea of the landscape 10,000s yrs ago, and how the stack formations were formed. The sand and clay would get around the tree and slowly build up, the tree dies and over time calcifies.
Each stack and formation is different
oh my sandy waves of sand patterns make me very happy
Not quite at the top, looking back over Lake Mungo and the sun dips below the horizon.
As sunset descended the air changed, and the as the cars left the car park and headed back to the visitor centre, the dust floated across the road and then remained, it looked awesome.
Back at the gully


Inside the gully.
Mungo Stacks.
Some of the vegetation survives.
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Mungo Run – Day 3/4/5 – The Loop.

Mungo National Park is the traditional meeting place of the Muthi Muthi, Nyiampaar and Barkinji Aboriginal Nations.

Home to the famous archeological discovery of Mungo Lady and Mungo Man, the World Heritage Mungo National Park is a region rich in Aboriginal history and natural beauty.

The visit centre or meeting place is the start of the Loop.

Remarkable human footprints walked straight out of the last ice age when they were re-discovered at Willandra Lakes in 2003 during a routine survey for archaeological sites. The footprints may have been exposed for some time before 2003, and some local Aboriginal people say they already knew they were there. Research has revealed that the well preserved footprints are about 20,000 years old, and can tell some amazing stories. They are the oldest footprints ever found in Australia and the largest set of ice age footprints in the world.

3D generates impressions of some of the footprints and the story they tell have been laid at the back of the centre. The story goes mum was walking with a child, child runs off and is chased down, men are hunting and catch food. One of the men is one legged. They are said to have been around 7ft tall. The story was followed and interpreted by experienced outback elder trackers brought in specifically to tell the story of the footprints in the ancient clay pan.

There are plenty of places to see and stop on the Loop Rd self drive tour. The Loop is 50-70km (dependence on if you do all the roads) and mostly one way except for the start and finish.

The next stop is right next to the visitor centre – the Woolshed.

The woolshed was constructed in 1869 from locally sourced and hand-cut Cypress Pine.

Obviously when the woolshed was built iron water tanks didn’t, so they dug these to help conserve water. This is a reconstruction finished in 2016 and covered to preserve it and skylights added so you can see into the construction.

Inside view of the water tank.

Many of the traditional woodshed items are still there, like this sorting table and bale scales.

The holding pens.

The shearers shoots.

The Shearers line

Literally the engine room of the woolshed.

From the sorting pens up the ramp to the holding pens.

Those white walls are visible from almost all angles in the park. Next stop – The Walls Walk.

The information boards at the beginning of the Walls Walk.

A tribute to one of the guides that passed away, representing his tribe, his family and the park including the lake and walls of China.

The flat dry lake bed of Lake Mungo stretches as far as the eye can see.

Even after some rain a few weeks back the ground is still so dry!

From the Walls Walk you head around to Red Top lookout. This is the last of the two-way road from here on The Loop it’s one way so make that’s where you want to head!

The lunette like landscape Mungo is famous for is evident here and quite close. In krder to protect and preserve both the indigenous and geological history, you can no longer walk out onto the “lunette” without an accredited and authorised Guide. This lookout gives the best close up view of the Lunette if you don’t want to take a tour (I’d highly advise you do but more about that in another post to come).

This mumma and her baby we’re keeping an eye on us.

Can you spot Charlie πŸš™ .. Nothing like vast landscapes to remind you have how small you really are.

From here you travel over the walls and along the eastern side of the park where the landscape changed at every turn. From stands of Rosewood and Belah, to grasslands, and over the red dunes and mallee scrub down into the depression where a number of old wells were located, past the remote Belah campground and old goat trap.

Our next stop was Paradise Tank. One of the many artificial watering holes in the park, a legacy of the past pastoral activities.

Relics of the pastoralists can still be found in the park. They were very clever for their time and technology.

Welcome water for the animals, shame about the 40 degrees keeping them away lol πŸ˜‚

Nooo, don’t run away!

Next stop – Vigors Well, a very worthwhile detour.

Plenty of opportunities to spot emu particularly given the ‘hidden’ watersource.

Can you spot the emus sitting in the holes?

It took us a little while to figure it out, but watching them we realised they weren’t just sitting the holes, they were digging, digging for water! The well is a natural soak and they know it. SoΒ clever.

Can you see the tail and footprints of the kangaroo?

Emu prints in the sand, see the palm tree like print of their feet.

Seriously who needs a drone when you’ve got legs πŸ€”πŸ™„ … Yep that’s where we walked!

The sand was super glarey and gave an almost optical illusion of being a straight drop off as we walked along the crest of the dune, when in fact it sloped down away from us. The view was pretty spectacular.

That’s Tash in the distance! Lol she’d had enough waiting around and was headed for the shade of the shelters back at the carpark πŸ˜‚

Emu patrol heading back to their watering holes

Next stop – Zanci

The old Zanci property stables.

An example of the thatch roof that would have been used.

Zanci Station – Woolshed.

The White walls are back in view on the horizon again.

Inside the old Zanci shearing shed. By 1922 Mungo shed had been reduced to 4 machine shearers, so a section was removed and rebuilt on Zanci.

The old Zanci station homestead ruins. Zanci is also the name given to the upper grey-green clay and sandy sediment of the ‘lunette’

Ahh the old outhouse is still standing.

The dugout – built deep into the ground to help store provisions away from the searing heat above the surface. It was a good 10 degrees cooler down there! I reckon the rabbits and wombats are onto something 😁

Old machinery.

The loop now takes you back to the Visitor centre.